Latest news on European Research in Learning and Work [L&W] - October 2019

News

In this edition of the L&W Newsletter you should note in particular several calls for papers relating to international conferences: the Stockholm conference of Research on VET, the conference stream on Technology, Gender and Working Life in Kent, the conference on Organizational Discourse in Amsterdam, the conference on Science and Technology Education in Porto (see Conferences) and the Workshop on Education and Training Policies in Europe in Berlin (see Networks and Organisations); also the call for chapters on Promoting Sustainable Development (see Publications). And not to overlook: The Public online voting for the VET Researcher Award and the Position of Research Associate at BIBB in Germany (see Networks and Organisations)!
Special thanks to all who contributed information for this edition, and also to our partners CR&DALL, CVER, ILO Employment Policy Department, PASCAL International Observatory, UFHRD, UNEVOC, VET&Culture and VETNET for providing input and sharing the L&W Newsletter via their mailing lists and web portals.

The L&W Newsletter focuses on transnational research activities across Europe in the field of human resource development (HRD) and vocational education and training (VET), centred on major categories: conferences, networks and organisations, programmes, projects and publications. The next edition will appear in early December 2019. You are invited to submit short texts (100 to 200 words, including links to web pages, but without attachments) - please by 30 November 2019 at the latest!

The L&W Newsletter reaches you via a mailing list of experts in and beyond Europe. You can also view the latest edition in the relaunched WIFO Gateway and download the L&W Newsletter in PDF. Please pass the Newsletter on to your colleagues and networks.

With best wishes
Sabine Manning
Research Forum WIFO
Editor of the L&W Newsletter
Contact: sm@wifo-gate.org

Please note: My new email address sabine-manning@t-online.de is due to replace the former address <sabine.manning[at]wifo.b.shuttle.de>. My contact address sm@wifo-gate.org continues to be valid.

Stockholm conference on VET: Call for papers

The deadline for abstracts for the 8th Stockholm International Conference of Research on Vocational Education and Training is approaching: 30 October 2019!
The conference, taking place 4 & 5 May 2020, is organized by the research group Vocational Education & Training at Stockholm University, and is part of the core events of the European Network for Vocational Education and Training (VETNET). The conference welcomes papers dealing with a variety of research problems of relevance for the advance of research in vocational education and training. Selected contributions will be published in the book series Emergent Issues on research in VET. There is no conference fee, participants pay only for the cost of the stay. For more information visit the conference site: https://stockholminternationalvet.com/ or contact the organizers Professor Lázaro Moreno Herrera (lazaro.moreno@edu.su.se) and Associate Professor Marianne Teräs (Marianne.teras@edu.su.se).
(Posted by Lázaro Moreno Herrera)


Conference: Educational reforms worldwide
XVIII Annual International Conference of the Bulgarian Comparative Education Society (BCES) in Sofia, Bulgaria, from 23 to 26 June 2020
The Conference focuses on past, current and upcoming reforms at all levels of the educational systems - preschool, primary, lower and upper secondary, postsecondary, and higher education; and in all educational streams – general, vocational, and special education.  Participants are invited to present their theoretical, methodological or empirical studies on reforms of various educational aspects - aims, priorities, missions, governance, finance, structures, curricula, syllabi, textbooks, teaching and learning styles, innovations, examinations, graduation requirements, academic degrees, etc. The early bird registration deadline is 30 November 2019. For more information please visit the Conference website: https://www.bces-conference.org/
(Info received from CR&DALL Site Digest and Website)

Call for papers: Technology, gender and working life
11th Biennial International Interdisciplinary Conference on Gender, Work & Organization 24th to 26th June 2020, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK
Stream No. 12 focuses on Technology, Gender and Working Life: Organisational technologies and the nature of the gender-technology relationship. The convenors are Julie Monroe, Newcastle University, UK; Gunilla Widén, Åbo Akademi University, Finland; Ana Lopes, Newcastle University, UK; Sara Zaeemdar, Newcastle University, UK; Ana Marija Sikirić, University of Rijeka, Croatia. Please submit papers on indicative topics including the following: Information literacy, the digital workplace and organisation level information culture; Gendered relationships between ICTs, workplace technology use and work-life articulation; Human-machine interfaces at work and individual technology behaviour; The connections between gender, work-life navigation, labour market power and attitudes to technologies.  Abstracts of approximately 500 words are invited by Friday 1st November 2019. Please contact Julie Monroe <j.monroe@newcastle.ac.uk> for further details of Stream 12. General information on the conference is available at the following website.
(Info obtained from CRITICAL-MANAGEMENT@JISCMAIL.AC.UK c/o UFHRD list)

Call for papers: Organizational discourse
14th International Conference on Organizational Discourse at Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 8th - 10th July 2020.
The Discourse Conference has a long tradition of gatherings that inspire and deepen the discursive branch of organization studies, creating a platform for lively exchange between senior and junior scholars, and establishing relationships of enduring academic cooperation. The 2020 conference theme is "Interstices, Intervals and Interrogations". It invites us to focus on the in-betweens, enclaves and intersections - the times and spaces where we may find terse storytelling or extensive story-swapping, discursive struggles or silent scheming, serious joking or hilarious debate, affectionate shouting or underplayed mumbling, strategic bullshitting, fake news or hard-boiled facts. Furthermore, the concern with 'inter' in our title questions how linkages and liaisons are constructed across social, cultural, organizational, institutional or disciplinary, and empirical or academic divides. Abstracts (1000 words) should be submitted by 12th January 2020. Further information see Academia page. Contact: Mie Plotnikof <mp@edu.au.dk>
(Info from CRITICAL-MANAGEMENT@JISCMAIL.AC.UK c/o UFHRD list)

Call for papers: Science and technology education

1st International Conference on Science and Technology Education STE 2020 in Porto, Portugal, 8-9 October 2020
The focus is on education in science and technology. The conference will provide an international forum for the sharing, dissemination and discussion of research, experience and perspectives across a wide range of teaching and learning issues. The conference welcomes abstracts/papers related to the following issues of science and technology: epistemologies (what makes science and technology thinking and knowledge), learning mechanisms (how people develop knowledge and competencies), learning systems (institutional practices), diversity and inclusiveness (how society in general contributes to science and technology processes and products), and assessment. Authors who wish to make a presentation (oral or poster) are requested to submit a short abstract (one single A4 page possibly with a diagram and references) in English, by 4 May 2020. The abstracts should be sent electronically to lucas@fe.up.pt. The abstract template can be downloaded from the conference website (www.fe.up.pt/ste2020).
(Info received from STE 2020 Conference <ste2020@fe.up.pt>)

 

Research conference on the history of VET science in Rostock: Report
Three days in September 2019, more than 50 German-speaking researchers from vocational education and training met to exchange methods, results and perspectives of historical VET research. The emergence of the scientific discipline, biographies from the period of genesis, paradigms and approaches to research were presented and discussed in German. Particularly noteworthy is the fact that researchers from the fields of general historical education research and science research also participated, as did representatives from Switzerland and Austria. Two series of lectures were dealing with the special development in the field of health and care, which has not yet been taken into account to such an extent in vocational training research. It can be seen that the professionalisation of teachers at vocational schools in German-speaking countries has had a significant influence on the internationally comparably strong establishment of the scientific discipline through chairs at universities.  The abstracts and the programme can be found on the conference page.
(Contributed by Franz Xaver Kaiser <franz.kaiser@uni-rostock.de>)


NOTE: Forthcoming and recent events related to European research in work and learning are listed on the WIFO Conference page [www.conferences.wifo-gate.org].


Networks and Organisations

EAPRIL 2019 conference
In collaboration with the University of Tartu, EAPRIL is proud to organise the 14th EAPRIL Conference, welcoming more than 400 practitioner-researchers, from November 27 till 29, 2019 in Tartu (Estonia). This year's conference will focus on the current and future challenges to ensure meaningfulness of learning in different settings at school, work, and everyday life. Practitioner-researchers all over Europe are invited to engage in this in-depth dialogue on the changed goals and approaches of life-long learning processes. Check-out the programme here! The EAPRIL Conference is renowned for its highly interactive presentation formats, with various inspiring keynote speeches and labs.  Extra events are organised to support educational researchers and practitioners in their day-to-day work, e.g. a Thematic Innovation Meeting on ERASMUS+ Calls, Staff Exchange Programme with the University of Tartu, and school visits to allow participants to learn more about the Estonian educational system. Please be invited to register for this unique event! More information: Check out www.eapril.org/EAPRIL-2019
(Posted by Inneke Berghmans <inneke.berghmans@kuleuven.be>)

Call for papers: Education and training policies in Europe
Workshop: Education and Training Policies in Europe - European, National and Local Coordination and Policy Learning. 23-24 April 2020 at the Hertie School, Berlin, Germany
European-level soft coordination has expanded in education and training: innovative initiatives are increasingly being pushed through a transnational exchange and mutual learning. With the end of the Europe 2020 Strategy and the ET 2020 framework fast approaching, the workshop at the Hertie School wants to take stock of and analyse developments at the European, national and subnational levels. The workshop programme also includes a public debate with policy practitioners on the first evening of the conference. The aim and motivation of the workshop is further set out in the call (please contact edu.gov.team@hertie-school.org). We warmly invite submissions from researchers at any career stage. Please submit an abstract of max. 300 words with a paper title, name and affiliation of all authors to edu.gov.team@hertie-school.org. The deadline for submitting proposals is 20 November 2019.
(Posted by Lukas Graf <graf@hertie-school.org>)

VETNET and the EU vocational skills week
Public online voting for the VET Researcher Award 2019 is open until 15 October 2019. The final winner will be selected through a mix of votes from the VETNET jury and the public. Have your say on who you think should win and choose your preferred candidate through online voting here. The candidates: Intergenerational team of researchers - Transicions, Prof. Fernando Marhuenda, University of Valencia: The multidisciplinary research team investigates social inclusion and labour integration, with a special emphasis on vulnerable groups. It explores societal, economic, educational and psycho-social factors that affect transitions to employment, and identifies mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion. Prof. Paolo Federighi, University of Firenze: His research focuses on inclusion throughout life, covering initial and continuing vocational education and training and adult education. It highlights the situation of vulnerable groups, such as low-skilled workers, unemployed people and immigrants, and searches for connections between adult education, labour policies and political economy. VETNET organizes a workshop of researchers at the EU Vocational Skills Week in Helsinki and participates in a workshop on future-oriented policy-making in cooperation with the Directorate General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusions of the European Commission.
(Posted by Barbara.Stalder@phbern.ch)

VETNET at ECER 2019
VETNET had again more than 120 proposals for its programme at ECER 2019 in Hamburg. The programme was highly appreciated by the participants, and the special VETNET events like the VETNET opening session and the general assembly were very well received. The traditional VETNET dinner on Wednesday evening was attended by  95 people. We are looking forward to receiving as many or even more proposals for VETNET at ECER 2020 in Glasgow. The Proceedings of VETNET at ECER 2019 in Hamburg are available in an extended version. Click here for the electronic version or order a printed book through amazon.com. The Proceedings 2018 have been downloaded more than 1'100 times by the end of September 2019 and are still available as a printed book through amazon.com. There are new regulations for VETNET Membership. Out of 95 persons invited to vote online, 71% participated. Thanks! All agreed to put the new regulations into effect by the end of September 2019. VETNET membership is now possible: Click here and fill in the form to become a member of VETNET.

(Contributed by Barbara.Stalder@phbern.ch)


Position of research associate at BIBB
BIBB (Bundesinstitut für Berufsbildung in Germany) is currently offering a position as research associate in the department "VET Research and Monitoring" (division "Competence Development"). The position will include working in a project targeted at measuring and fostering the social and emotional competences of trainee medical assistants as well as participating in an evaluation study on the transfer success of projects in the ASCOT+ initiative. Note: The job advertisement is in German, and it is available following this link. Please feel free to forward this email to anyone who might be interested.
(Info received from Annalisa Schnitzler <Schnitzler@bibb.de>)

NOTE: References to research networks in the field of European work and learning are available on the WIFO page Networks at a glance [www.networks.wifo-gate.org]. Contact: Sabine Manning
[Back to Newsletter]


Programmes and Projects

Learning for entrepreneurship
Autumn Seminar 2019 of eucen (european university continuing education network) "Learning for Entrepreneurship: A Global Citizen perspective" 14-15 November 2019 in Barcelona (ES)
This year's seminar will focus on entrepreneurial thinking in lifelong learning that expands our perceptions of entrepreneurship for a more inclusive and sustainable future. University Lifelong Learning and Adult Education can play an important role in reaching the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. The seminar will include three interactive workshops on: World Citizenship; Citizen Science; and Development of Micro-Enterprises with displaced and vulnerable populations. It will also include keynote talks, research papers and posters. The seminar will overlap with the final symposium of the VINCE (Validation for inclusion of new citizens of Europe) project. The VINCE symposium is a free and open event. Arrive one day earlier and attend two activities without further extra cost. Download the Preliminary Programmes for VINCE and the Seminar. Don't miss the early bird registration! For further details please look up the CR&Dall info page.
(Info obtained from CR&DALL Site Digest for 10/09/19)

Sectoral skills development
SIF - SKILLMAN.EU INTERNATIONAL FORUM 2019 on "Curriculum design, Sectoral skills development and Ethical issues on Advanced Manufacturing sector" hosted by Didactica in Florence, Italy, October 10th and 11th 2019 (a European Vocational Skills Week 2019 EVENT)
The SIF 2019 explores the following four dimensions: • Skillman 'action driven' model of CoVE - Nature, characteristics and settings of the Centres of Vocational Excellence promoted by the Skillman Network for a green and inclusive 'game change' in the advanced manufacturing and sectoral skills development. • Curriculum design - Innovative curriculum design in the Advanced Manufacturing sector in coherence with ECVET - EQF framework and ESCO classification in interconnection with the existing EU tools and initiatives for anticipating and matching skills and jobs. • Ethical values, green and inclusion - Capacity building synergies and collaboration to connect the competences necessary for Advanced Manufacturing to the personal responsibility according to the UNESCO 17 goals on sustainable development. • Transnational mobility and learning - Supporting the cooperational model of the Skillman network with innovative approaches and exchange of good practice in transnational mobility for education and employability. Please visit the SIF website.
(Info received from <euskillsweeks@mailprocess.eu>)

Augmenting students' learning
Stephen Billett, Griffith University: Augmenting Students' Learning for Employability Through Post-Practicum Educational Processes
This project investigated and trialled a range of approaches to enhance higher education students' employability through post-practicum interventions. That is, utilising and integrating their workplace experiences in ways directed to achieving specific educational outcomes associated with graduate employability. Identified across two phases of projects, the first 14 in healthcare and the second 28 in other disciplines were ways that post-practicum interventions could be used to achieve specific educational outcomes. A range of considerations for planning and enacting such interventions were also identified. The reports can be found on Stephen Billett's personal website. The handouts from this project include (i) project summary, (ii) final report, and (ii) rounds 1 and 2 project reports.

(Posted by Stephen Billett <s.billett@griffith.edu.au>)


Good VET for refugees
On the 2nd of September 2019 the Multiplier Event for the Erasmus+ project "Indicators of Good VET practice for refugees" (GoodVET) took place. During the welcome speech, Dr. Junmin Li pointed out that the focus of the project was to visualise experience with the integration of refugees into VET. The guest speaker Sarah Pierenkemper from the "German economic institute" introduced some success factors of the labour market integration of refugees, before the main outcomes of the project were presented by the project leader Katrin Posch. During the project 11 quality indicators have been identified, which are particularly relevant for the integration of refugees into VET programmes. Out of those indicators, five best practice examples have been generated, and above all an online based analysis tool. During the Multiplier Event representatives of those best practice examples presented their work in a world café. All participants had the opportunity to get in touch with them, get familiar with the project and ask specific questions. After a short outlook in plenum, the participants spent the rest of the time networking with each other. Further information and all results can be downloaded on the project website
(Contributed by Katrin J. Posch <katrin.posch@uni-koeln.de>)

NOTE: Contributions are invited to update the Overview of European research projects [www.projects.wifo-gate.org], provided as part of the WIFO Gateway. Contact: Sabine Manning


Publications

Call for chapters: Promoting sustainable development
The book "Teaching and Learning Practices that Promote Sustainable Development" will be published by 2020. Its main objective is to demonstrate how Education should be (and is already) one of the pillars for world sustainability based on the dissemination of good educational practices, which in formal and non-formal contexts developed around the world, contributing decisively to the development of fundamental competencies of analysis, understanding and action on the various risks that are posed today to the sustainable development of our society and ecosystem. If your work is in this field, there is a Call for Chapters. The Call is open until 23rd October, 2019. Researchers and practitioners are invited to submit a proposal of 1,000 to 2,000 words explaining the mission and concerns of his or her proposed chapter. Authors will be notified by November 6, 2019 about the status of their proposals. Thank you in advance for your collaboration, The Editorial Team (Sandra Saúde, Maria Albertina Raposo, Nuno Pereira & Ana Isabel Rodrigues).

(Contributed by Sandra Saúde <saude.sandra@gmail.com>)


Analytical framework for apprenticeships
Cedefop's analytical framework for apprenticeships. July 2019 [Details] [Download]
This framework is a tool for analysing apprenticeship systems and schemes in Europe and, possibly, beyond. It is not modelled on a single recommended type of apprenticeship system or scheme - it draws on features that appear to work in more than one apprenticeship system or scheme and summarises key elements they share, to different extents and in different combinations. It also provides a standardised definition of apprenticeship and outlines several areas of analysis, which are further articulated into operational descriptors.
(Obtained from Cedefop newsletter No 92 - July/August 2019)

Costs and benefits of apprenticeship training
Measuring the costs and benefits of apprenticeship training. ILO policy brief, August 2019 [Details]
This policy brief provides an overview of the current debate and research efforts to measure cost and benefits of apprenticeship training. It introduces the methods and challenges associated with collecting data and attaching a monetary value to apprenticeships, for enterprises, learners and society. Despite the limited number of studies that exist, the policy brief shows that apprenticeships, if of a certain quality and regulated, are not only profitable for enterprises, but significantly increase employability and employment perspectives for apprentices, and in doing so, reduce the overall risks of unemployment and therefore potential social costs. The policy brief also discusses how the findings of cost-benefit analysis can be used as an effective marketing tool by governments, trade unions and employers associations to boost the overall attractiveness of apprenticeships.
(Info obtained from ILO Employment Newsletter <employment@ilo.org>)

New Issue of IJRVET: Vol. 6, Issue 2
The International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET) has published a new issue. The second regular issue of 2019 contains the following topics: Margit Ebbinghaus investigates the training place characteristics companies communicate in their advertisements; Leif Christian Lahn and Hæge Nore review and discuss the piloting in Norway of a German methodology for competence diagnostics in vocational education and training; Francesca Salvà, Carme Pinya, Nuria Álvarez and Aina Calvo discuss dropout prevention in secondary VET from different learning spaces; Bernd Zinn, Kevin Raisch and Jennifer Reimann analyse training needs of TVET teachers in South Africa; and Uma Gengaiah’s book review is about "India. International Handbook of Vocational Education and Training". Please find all articles on http://www.ijrvet.net .
(Posted by IJRVET Editorial Office <ijrvet@uni-bremen.de>)

Holistic professional competence
Leif Christian Lahn & Hæge Nore (2019). Large scale studies of holistic professional competence in vocational education and training (VET). The case of Norway. International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training Vol 6 No 2 [Details]
In this paper, we review and discuss the piloting in Norway of a German methodology for competence diagnostics in vocational education and training: the Competence Development and Assessment in TVET (COMET) project. Our overarching theme is determining to what extent such large-scale assessment systems are valid for international comparisons in this sector. We present the theoretical underpinnings of the COMET model and position our discussion within the broader context of the concept of "professional competence" (berufliche Kompetenz) and methodological guidelines for its measurement. Our pilot included students and apprentices in health care, industrial mechanics and electricians and was designed as a three-year follow-up study from the second year of upper secondary school through two years of apprenticeship. Each year, a test on professional competence and a context survey were administered. Similar studies have been conducted in Germany, China and South Africa. In line with the results from these countries, the Norwegian participants had low scores, particularly the electricians. However, the diagnostic instrument was sensitive to the development of professional competence, and progress on the assessment was influenced by the quality of the learning support in the companies, as reported by apprentices in the context survey.
(Info obtained from publishers' page)

The ESF in the Visegrad countries
Eduardo Tomé, Katarzyna Tracz-Krupa (2019). The European social fund in the Visegrad countries in the 2007-2013 programming phase. European Journal of Training and Development Vol 43 Issue 7/8 [Details]
The research question of this paper is the following: How to describe and assess the investment of the ESF in the four Visegrad countries -  the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia - during the period 2007-13 from a point of view of HRD? In order to assess that operation we used a methodology for analysing the context, operations and impact of the ESF in the Visegrad countries (V4). In consequence we reached three main conclusions: (1) The ESF should be an instrument of transforming the V4 into high skilled and high income economies. (2) Between 2007 and 2013 the ESF succeeded making massive investments in the V4, measured by financial or physical indicators. A framework of companies, consultants and administrators was created so that the funds were absorbed and spent and the operations done involving millions of people. (3) The ESF effectively increased the investment and the stocks of HR in the V4, thereby helping them to become more developed and highly-skilled. Despite some problems with quality, which should not be overlooked, in macro terms, the experience of the ESF in the V4 between 2007 and 2013 was a success.
(Contributed by Eduardo Tomé <eduardo.tome@clix.pt>)

Cross-national convergence in training processes
Ann Lahiff, Junmin Li, Lorna Unwin, Lea Zenner-Höffkes, Matthias Pilz (2019). Industrial standardisation as a driver for cross-national convergence in training processes. European Journal of Training and Development Vol 43 Issue 7/8 [Details]

The purpose of this paper is to address a gap in the comparative research literature on vocational education and training (VET) and skill formation systems. It examines the impact of international technical standardisation and regulation on the design, organisation and delivery of apprenticeships in the aeronautical and aerospace sectors in England and Germany. The research design was informed by insights from economics, workplace and work-based learning and comparative education. Academic experts in the fields of aerospace and aeronautical standardisation and regulation, VET, human resource development and business organisation were consulted. The generic occupation of "aircraft mechanic" was selected as being the closest match for comparison. Interviews and non-participant observation in workplaces and training centres were carried out involving three companies in England and four in Germany. Findings show that there is considerable convergence across the pedagogical approaches to apprenticeships in England and Germany related to fostering the capacity to take responsibility for the quality of one's work, to work in and lead teams, and to respond to and work with customers. Increasing international regulation and technical standardisation underpins a shared language about learning through practice in technologically advanced workplaces.
(Contributed by Ann Lahiff <ann.lahiff@ucl.ac.uk>)


Candidates' perceptions of professional certification
Maria-Eugenia Ruiz-Molina, Irene Gil-Saura, Gloria Berenguer-Contri, Christoph Auch (2019). Determinants of behavioral intentions towards a professional certification scheme at European level. European Journal of Training and Development Vol 43 Issue 7/8 [Details]
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of candidates' perceptions of the attributes of a professional certification scheme based on competences, as well as personal factors, that may influence the behavioral intentions toward such certification program, i.e. intention to participate in the certification process and willingness to pay for the certificate. Based on a survey of 2,630 professionals about the "Certified Professional" program in eight European countries, the influence of the perceived attributes of the certification program and the personal characteristics of the potential candidates on their behavioral intentions are analyzed. Difficulty and fairness of the certification process, credibility, innovativeness, international recognition and future usefulness of the professional certificate have a positive influence on the candidates' likelihood of applying for being certified and the willingness to pay. Young professionals not holding a university diploma show a high probability to participate in the certification process and intention to pay for the certificate. Promotional efforts to launch a professional certification scheme should concentrate in creating strong associations of the certificate with the notions of international prestige, credibility and usefulness to enhance employability and professional growth. Segmentation criteria to increase communication effectiveness are defined.
(Info obtained from publishers' page)

NOTE: References to publications on European research in learning and work are provided by the WIFO pages on Books [www.books.wifo-gate.org],  Journals [www.journals.wifo-gate.org] and Articles [www.articles.wifo-gate.org]


Impressum

Editor of the L&W Newsletter: Dr Sabine Manning, Research Forum WIFO;
Email: sm@wifo-gate.org  (or:  sabine-manning@t-online.de);
Address: Neue Blumenstr. 1, D-10179 Berlin, Germany;
Editions of the L&W Newsletter: six times a year, every two months (at the beginning of February, April, June, August, October, December);
Deadline for contributions to the L&W Newsletter: end of January, March, May, July, September, November;
Details and Archive of the L&W Newsletter [www.news.wifo-gate.org];
See also our update on Data Protection.

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