In this edition of the L&W Newsletter, you should note in particular the call for proposals to the following conferences: AVETRA 2021 (online) - Recover, rethink and rebuild: All eyes on VET, TAKE 2021 - Theory and Applications in the Knowledge Economy in Porto, the Conference on Employer Engagement (online), the ESREA Network conference on Adult Learning and Communities in Seville, the Cedefop/OECD symposium on Apprenticeships for greener economies and societies (online) and EAPRIL 2021 - Learning in the Age of Industry 4.0 in Kufstein, Austria (see Conferences), and the call for contributions to special issues on: Emergent issues in research on VET (new volume of research book series), Regional disparities in national education (journal Education Sciences) and Doctoral theses in vocational education (Journal of Vocational Education & Training) (see Publications). And not to overlook: the Flash meeting on Corona Coping Competence organized by the LinkedIn Competence Studies Group (see Networks and Organisations)!
Special thanks to all who contributed information for this edition, and also to our partners CR&DALL, CVER, Education & Employers Research, ILO Employment Policy Department, PASCAL International Observatory, UFHRD, UNEVOC, VET&Culture and VETNET for providing input and sharing the L&W Newsletter via their mailing lists and web portals.
The L&W Newsletter focuses on transnational research activities across Europe in the field of human resource development (HRD) and vocational education and training (VET), centred on major categories: conferences, networks and organisations, programmes, projects and publications. The next edition will appear in early April 2021. You are invited to submit short texts (100 to 200 words, including links to web pages, but without attachments) - please by 31 March 2021 at the latest!
The L&W Newsletter reaches you via a mailing list of experts in and beyond Europe. You can also view the latest edition in the WIFO Gateway and download the L&W Newsletter in PDF. Please pass the Newsletter on to your colleagues and networks.
Research Forum WIFO
Editor of the L&W Newsletter
Contact: [email protected]
Please note: My new email address [email protected] has replaced the former address <sabine.manning[at]wifo.b.shuttle.de>. My contact address [email protected] continues to be valid.
AVETRA 2021 - All eyes on VET: Call for papers
Conference of the Australian Vocational Education and Training Association (AVETRA) - "Recover, rethink and rebuild: All eyes on VET" 19-23 April, 2021 - ONLINE
You are invited to submit an abstract for individual paper presentations for the 2021 AVETRA Online conference. We expect many sessions in the afternoon that colleagues in Europe will be able to access along with expected asynchronous access to our keynotes. AVETRA's conferences are an annual gathering of researchers, VET practitioners and leaders, education policymakers and representatives from industry, unions and employers. It is an opportunity to showcase scholarly and applied research of, for and from within vocational education. Due to the pandemic, our 2020 conference had to be postponed. Abstracts and papers accepted for the 2020 conference are guaranteed a place in the 2021 conference program. Abstract submission close: March 5, 2021. Please submit your abstract through the Abstract Submission Form. Full details and guidelines for submission are available on the AVETRA website.
(Contributed by Lizzie Knight <[email protected]>)
TAKE 2021 conference: Update on call for contributions
Call for contributions to TAKE 2021: Theory and Applications in the Knowledge Economy – 7th - 9th July 2021, Universidade Portucalense, Porto, Portugal
TAKE is an international scientific conference devoted to the multidisciplinary study of the knowledge economy. In particular, it aims to analyse the relation and the gap between theories and practices in the knowledge economy of the 21st century. This year the Conference will have a very obvious main topic: TAKE 2021 – The Knowledge Economy in the Covid-19 Era. Also, due to current and still unpredictable restrictions of movement, we are not sure if the Conference will be face-to-face, hybrid, or online – we are preparing all three scenarios. Crucially, the registration, already operating, allows for the two options, presence or online. Finally, the online fee, in an early bird or normal system, is 100 euros less than the presence fee. In any case we really expect to carry out the event. Please submit your abstract (about 1500 words) before February 28th 2021. We hope to make TAKE 2021 a memorable event. Please visit the conference website. Important dates are available here. For submission, check here. The streams can be looked up on this page. The Call for Papers is here. We look forward to seeing you in Porto in July 2021.
(Contributed by Eduardo Tomé <[email protected]>)
Conference on employer engagement: Update
The 6th International Conference on Employer Engagement: Preparing Young People for the Future will take place online on Thursday 1 July 2021 9:00 – Friday 2 July 2021 17:00 BST
The conference call for papers is now live. All abstracts and proposals should be submitted by 31st March 2021. This conference is hosted by Education and Employers in partnership with the Edge Foundation. It will focus on employer engagement in education, vocational education and training, and the extent to which these interventions adequately prepare young people for the rapidly changing world of work. In particular, attention will focus on the need to develop and capture the skill requirements within the changing labour market and how such interventions can support young people as part of the response to Covid-19. The conference also seeks to reflect on reforms and policy shifts in relation to education and training and employer engagement internationally. Conference themes include: Employer engagement and preparation for work; Employer engagement and pedagogy; Employer engagement and the curriculum. Full details, the call for papers, and booking information are available here. For more information, please get in touch at [email protected]
(Posted by Tazmin Mirza <[email protected]>)
Adult learning and communities: Call for papers
Third Call for Papers, 12th Conference of the ESREA Network ‘Between Global and Local – Adult Learning and Communities’ Seville, September 16-18, 2021 [Details]
The theme of this conference is ‘Looking back for the future. Reconsidering adult learning and communities’. Our research network has consistently taken as its point of departure the world of people as lived globally and locally, and their experience of learning in the teeth of ingrained systemic inequalities, discrimination, chauvinism, neo-colonialism, class and race prejudice. We need to pose questions that promote debate. Some of these to consider together in this conference include, for example: What are the real global and local challenges for adult learning? What is the role of the researcher? What does it mean when educators are referred to as 'mediators' of local and global education policies? Is adult education likely to be absorbed even further into the commercialised notion of education as product-delivery than is already the case in many places? The deadline for abstracts (around 600 words) is February 18, 2021. Please look up the Call for further details.
(Info obtained from ESREA website)
Apprenticeships for greener economies and societies: Call for proposals
Cedefop and the OECD announce the 2021 joint symposium on Apprenticeships for greener economies and societies. The event will take place on 21-22 October 2021. Due to uncertainties around travel restrictions, the event will be organised in a virtual format. A call for abstracts will be launched in February 2021. Interested authors will be invited to submit abstracts of research or analysis of practices that explore the links between apprenticeships and the transition towards greener economies and societies, and the implications for policy making. Selected contributions will be presented during the symposium and/or included in the subsequent dedicated publication. The tentative deadline for abstract submissions is 20 April 2021. Authors of selected abstracts will be asked to develop full papers between May and July 2021. Visit the Symposium web page for additional information. You may contact the Cedefop apprenticeship team for further clarifications.
(Contributed by Vlasis KOROVILOS <[email protected]>)
Learning in the age of industry 4.0: Call for proposals
EAPRIL 2021 Conference on Learning in the Age of Industry 4.0. Kufstein, Austria, November 24-26, 2021
This Conference addresses the changing goals of lifelong learners. Practitioner researchers are encouraged to have an in-depth dialogue regarding the opportunities provided through learning in the age of industry 4.0 and digitalisation in education. Digitalisation and digital technologies emerging in education and learning are phenomena in theory and practice in this era. Several examples have already emerged and are intensively discussed in research as well as integrated in practice. Digitalisation not only affects all types of education, but also provides opportunities for collaborative learning across different school types and didactic concepts. Therefore, we would like to highlight the important considerations of how and why modern technologies and methodologies in the age of industry 4.0 can cross or connect modern didactic concepts as well as types of education. As one of the largest European communities for practitioner-researchers, the EAPRIL conference is the perfect platform for discussions on this topic. You can submit your proposal by April 1, 2021 midnight CEST. Submissions are open now! More information and submission guidelines can be found here. For all information on the conference see https://eapril.org/eapril-2021
(Contributed by Stef Heremans <[email protected]>)
NOTE: Forthcoming and recent events related to European research in work and learning are listed on the WIFO Conference page [www.conferences.wifo-gate.org].
Networks and Organisations
Flash meeting: Corona coping competence
A Teams Flash Meeting will be organized by the LinkedIn Competence Studies Group on March 22, 2021, 19:00 – 20:00 CET (Central European Time). The theme of the meeting is ‘Corona Coping Competence’.
With the outbreak of new and highly contagious COVID-mutants, this theme seems to be even more relevant than expected; Corona virus generations may disrupt our societies even further and longer than anticipated. The tentative programme is: 1. Review of literature on Learning and Development in Times of Corona. Martin Mulder, Professor Emeritus Wageningen University. 2. Corona Core Competence. How to Strategically Navigate Organizations during a Pandemic? Aimé Heene, honorary professor at Ghent University. 3. Resilience in the Education and Training Business in Times of Disruptive Change. Eric Verduyn, Director of Education at the NCOI Group. 4. Teacher Transformation in Corona-hit Education. Eveline Wuttke, Chair of Business Education, University of Frankfurt. 5. Working and Competence Requirements of Medical Assistants during COVID 19. Annalisa Schnitzler, Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training, Bonn. 6. Corona and Rural Competence Development in Africa. Jack Elliott, Regional Director for Africa, Norman Borlaug Institute, Texas A&M University. 7. Discussion. If you are interested in participating, please send an email to [email protected] to receive a link to the meeting. Find more information about this meeting on www.mmulder.nl.
(Contributed by Martin Mulder)
The role of intergenerational learning in adult education
Intergenerational Learning (IL) occurs when intergenerational projects or activities are purposefully planned to include one, or several, learning aims and outcomes across the generations, i.e. both sides learning from or with each other, to gain skills, values and knowledge. Beyond the transfer of knowledge, IL fosters reciprocal learning relationships between different generations and helps to develop social capital and social cohesion in our ageing societies. Learning is something that is processed over the lifespan and IL opens the potential for intergenerational volunteering in local communities, and people of all ages learning together. A blog written by Generations Working Together The Role of Intergenerational Learning in Adult Education published on EPALE (Electronic Platform for Adult Learning in Europe) with a short online quiz and Intergenerational Learning Video What is intergenerational learning? How can adult educators plan successful intergeneration learning programmes? What has been the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on this kind of activities? These are some of the issues tackled by this video interview. For further interest follow National Intergenerational Week and Generations Working Together National Conference 2021 (8–12 March) offering a series of Webinars exploring intergenerational practice.
(Contributed by Bella Kerr <[email protected]>)
VETNET: ECER proceedings and membership
The VETNET ECER Proceedings "Trends in Vocational Education and Training Research. Vol II" are now available as a printed book. Although last year's European Conference on Educational Research (ECER) in Glasgow UK was cancelled, we invited authors of accepted presentations in network 2 to submit a paper for the VETNET ECER Proceedings 2020. You can order the book on amazon.com; all papers are also available on vetnetsite.org.
The European Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET) maintains a membership list on vetnetsite.org. If you are not yet a member, you can apply anytime by filling in this form.
(Info received from VETNET < [email protected]>, <[email protected]>)
NOTE: References to research networks in the field of European work and learning are available on the WIFO page Networks at a glance [www.networks.wifo-gate.org]. Contact: Sabine Manning
Programmes and Projects
Research projects in series on VET International
Three research projects - CodeVET, QualIndia and DualReg - are represented in the series “Vocational Education and Training International” (Berufsbildung International) recently published by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research. The project contributions are included in the topics ‘Role of Research in International VET Projects’ (Rolle der Forschung in internationalen Berufsbildungsprojekten) and ‘Sustainability’ (Nachhaltigkeit) in VET.
The contribution of CodeVET focuses on team diversity in international research collaboration. Cooperation processes in the project are illustrated and reflected by means of a contextual model of international research teams. The team from QualIndia addresses challenges and opportunities of cooperation in international research partnerships. Using the concrete example of developing an approach to quality measurement in Indian VET institutions, they show how cooperation in international teams produces a generation of new and fruitful research and development results. The contribution of DualReg focuses on green skills in the vocational training landscape in Mexico. The team uses the example of the touristic centre Cancún to examine how different actors (government agencies, vocational education organisations, hotels etc.) respond to environmental challenges in order to contribute to solutions in the context of vocational education. The three projects are carried out by the German Research Center for Comparative Vocational Education and Training ( G.R.E.A.T.) at the University of Cologne. For more information see project page.
(Info received from Beke Vogelsang <[email protected]>)
NOTE: Contributions are invited to update the Overview of European research projects [www.projects.wifo-gate.org], provided as part of the WIFO Gateway. Contact: Sabine Manning
Emergent issues in research on VET: Call for contributions
Welcome to contribute to the 7th volume of the research book series "Emergent Issues in Research on Vocational Education and Training" published by the Research group Vocational Education & Training (VET) at Stockholm University, in cooperation with the European Research Network on Vocational Education and Training (VETNET).
The 7th volume will have the theme: Migration and inclusion in working life – The role of VET. Under this umbrella, the main aim is to present state of the art research in an area that at the present is getting major attention by policy makers as well as practitioners in Europe and other contexts. We welcome contributions with different theoretical and methodological approaches, going from empirically based text to policy analysis. Even though the texts can be case studies or national policy analyses, they should be of interest to an international audience. Proposals are expected to be first submitted just as abstracts. Guidelines are available in the link below. The editorial team will notify an initial acceptance based on the abstract. Please note that, before acceptance, the concluded text will be submitted to a blind peer review process. Important dates: Deadline for submission of proposals (abstracts) 1st March 2021; Information on acceptance of proposals by 10th March 2021; Deadline for concluded articles 1st July 2021. Templates for abstracts and chapters are here. Please send your proposal to the editors via Email: [email protected]
(Contributed by Lazaro Moreno Herrera <[email protected]>)
Regional disparities in national education: Call for contributions
Special issue of the journal "Education Sciences" on the topic “Regional Disparities in National Education: Origins, Governance, and Consequences”. Guest Editors: Prof. Dr. Regula Julia Leemann, Prof. Dr. Kriesi Irene and Prof. Dr. Rita Nikolai [Details]
Education Sciences is an online open access journal. We welcome papers addressing the described research gaps from different disciplines, including education sciences, sociology, political sciences, or the economics of education. Papers may focus on a selected country and its disparities in education at regional or even local levels. They may also analyze origins, governance, and consequences of regional disparities between different countries. Proposals may focus both on theoretical or empirical questions, applying qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. If you are interested in submitting a full paper, please submit an abstract by 28 February 2021. You can find all the details here. If you do not receive financial support for the Article Processing Charge (APC) from your institution or research funding institutions, the guest editors have the possibility to provide a discount or waiver accordingly.
(Posted by Leemann Regula <[email protected]>)
Call for abstracts of doctoral theses
Leesa Wheelahan (2020). Doctoral theses in vocational education. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, Volume 72, Issue 4 [Details]
Thirty-one abstracts from doctoral graduates’ theses of 2018 and 2019 from seven countries are published in this issue of the journal. This is a new initiative for the journal. We hope to provide a platform for new doctoral graduates to share their research with the wider vocational education research community. Topics covered by graduates’ theses published in this issue range from ‘Learning, innovation and “tacit pedagogy” in workplace practices’ in England, ‘Qualification practices of companies in the electrical industry in selected regions of Germany, Poland and the Netherlands’, and ‘Student Experience of Vocational Becoming in Upper Secondary Vocational Education and Training’ in Sweden’, just to name some. The range and depth of doctoral students work showcased here demonstrates that the future of vocational education research is in good hands. To submit an abstract for inclusion in our 2021 collection of doctoral theses abstracts, please visit our website for further instructions: jvet.co.uk.
(Info obtained from JVET website)
Cedefop/OECD: The next steps for apprenticeship
Cedefop/OECD (2021). The next steps for apprenticeship. Cedefop reference series 118. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union [Details]
The joint Cedefop and OECD publication on The next steps for apprenticeship is now online. Contributions of 16 authoring teams from Europe, Australia, Canada and the US look at the future of apprenticeship from the perspective of emerging policy objectives, new approaches to education and training and external megatrends. Authors examine how apprenticeship is or may be affected by external megatrends, linked to various long-term structural trends that transform the world of work and education profoundly. They also offer insights on scenarios for the future development of apprenticeship, its emerging relationship to higher education, its orientation towards attractiveness and excellence and the (often ambiguous) impact of policy reforms on apprenticeship provision and design. Findings and messages included in this publication will contribute to informing political decisions which shape the futures of the current generation of apprentices.
(Contributed by Vlasis KOROVILOS <[email protected]>)
New issue of IJRVET: Vol. 7, Issue 3
The International Journal for Research in Vocational Education and Training (IJRVET) has published a complete new issue. The third regular issue of 2020 contains the following topics: Muthuveeran Ramasamy and Matthias Pilz discuss a demand-driven approach of vocational training for rural populations in India; Anne-Maria Korhonen, Sanna Ruhalahti, Minna Lakkala and Marjaana Veermans show vocational student teachers’ self-reported experiences in creating ePortfolios; Jorunn Dahlback, Hanne Berg Olstad, Ann Lisa Sylte and Anne-Catrine Wolden study the importance of authentic workplace-based assessment in VET teacher education; Kaja Reegård and Horacy Debowski investigate whether emigration and immigration constitute a driving force for institutional change of the Polish VET system; Martin Dobricki, Alessia Evi-Colombo and Alberto Cattaneo review vocational learning and teaching using digital technologies; Pascal Kamphuis and Arie C. Glebbeek explore whether framing the labour market as insecure increases the willingness of workers to invest in training. You can find all articles on the IJRVET page.
(Contributed by IJRVET Editorial Office <[email protected]>)
Comparative VET European research since the 1980s
Clarke L., Westerhuis A. and Winch C. (2020). Comparative VET European Research since the 1980s: accommodating changes in VET systems and labour markets. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, published online: 18 Dec 2020 [Details]
The article assesses the role comparative research plays from the 1980s in understanding vocational education and training (VET) systems in Europe, driven by political, economic, social and labour market changes. This research has been transformed, moving from national comparisons of VET systems, grounded in institutional theory and engaging with convergence versus divergence debates or human capital theory, to the varieties of capitalism approach considering groups of countries as representative of particular capitalist economies, to transcending national boundaries and emphasising capitalist diversity, governance and labour agency. Drawing on examples of research in which the authors and others have been involved, particularly on the construction industry, the article traces this development and shows how, despite governance weaknesses, comparative research has been enriched by the addition of a European Union level through the introduction of tools such as the European Qualifications Framework. Four dimensions are proposed - labour market, governance, education and competence - capable of identifying VET 'families' and intra-national variations and capturing the dynamics of VET systems. Through a multi-dimensional and multi-level framework, comparative VET research can provide a deeper understanding of how and why VET systems respond to the challenges of technological, economic and environmental change.
(Contributed by Linda Clarke <[email protected]>)
Re-conceptualising VET: Responses to Covid-19
Avis, J. Atkins, L. Esmond, B. McGrath, S. (2021). Re-conceptualising VET: Responses to Covid-19. Journal of Vocational Education & Training. Published online: 30 Dec 2020 [Details]
The paper addresses the impact of Covid-19 on vocational education and training, seeking to discern the outline of possible directions for its future development within the debates about VET responses to the pandemic. The discussion is set in its socio-economic context, considering debates that engage with the social relations of care and neo-liberalism. The paper analyses discourses that have developed around VET across the world during the pandemic, illustrating both possible continuities and ruptures that may emerge in this field, as the health crisis becomes overshadowed in public policy by the prioritisation of economic recovery and social restoration. The paper concludes that, alongside the possibility of a narrowing of VET to its most prosaic aims and practices, the health crisis could also lead to a re-conceptualisation that develops its radical and emancipatory possibilities in both the global south and north.
(Contributed by James Avis <[email protected]>)
A new typology of apprenticeship programmes in Europe
Markowitsch, J. & Wittig, W. (2020). Understanding differences between apprenticeship programmes in Europe: towards a new conceptual framework for the changing notion of apprenticeship. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 1-22 [Details]
Following a review of previous approaches to classify apprenticeships, this paper explores the potential of a new, combined cultural-historical and functional classification of apprenticeships on the basis of their underlying training logic. Four main logics are discussed which categorise apprenticeships according to their key purpose and the responsibilities with regard to content, organisation and financing: (1) corporate training, (2) professional education, (3) school or university education and (4) public training schemes as part of active labour market policy. 37 apprenticeship programmes in 25 European countries have been analysed and categorised according to this new typology. The authors observe a trend towards the prevalence of the school/university logic and find it very likely that apprenticeships in the 21st century may become a particular approach to dual learning within the overall paradigm of lifelong learning, putting to rest the idea of the craftsman and skilled worker education it was mainly associated with in the centuries before. It is argued that the typology can serve as an explanatory framework for ongoing changes in apprenticeship approaches and may be used for the identification of similarities and common challenges.
(Contributed by Jörg Markowitsch <[email protected]>)
Teaching and learning in German and Chinese VET schools
Henan Guo, Matthias Pilz (2020). A comparative study of teaching and learning in German and Chinese vocational education and training schools: A classroom observation study. Research in Comparative and International Education. Vol 15 No 4 [Details]
This study compares teaching and learning in German and Chinese vocational education and training (VET) schools. The adoption of teaching methods and instructional media are used as two descriptive dimensions. Relevant data on these factors were collected through systematic classroom observation. Generally, both similarities and differences can be noted between German and Chinese VET schools. The results concerning adoption of teaching methods and instructional media are discussed in the context of two factors: teacher education, and curriculum.
(Contributed by Henan Guo <[email protected]>)
Collective skill formation systems
Alexandra Strebel, Patrick Emmenegger and Lukas Graf. New Interest Associations in a Neo-Corporatist System: Adapting the Swiss Training System to the Service Economy. British Journal of Industrial Relations. First published: 08 December 2020 [Details]
This paper focusses on the Swiss case as an example of the European systems of collective skill formation (Austria, Germany, Denmark, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Collective skill formation systems need to adapt to economic change, most notably the expansion of the service economy. However, deeply anchored in the craft and industrial sectors, these systems rely on neo‐corporatist institutions to support firms’ training provision, which are often missing in the service sector. We show that Switzerland's voluntaristic approach to interest intermediation provided the flexibility needed to extend vocational training to economic sectors without neo‐corporatist institutions. Yet, these adaptations resulted in the emergence of interest associations characterised by low levels of generalisability and governability. These new associations co‐exist with neo‐corporatist ones, rendering the overall training system surprisingly heterogeneous.
(Contributed by Lukas Graf <[email protected]>)
Cooperative students' digital competences
Lydia Schulze Heuling & Steffen Wild (2021). How student characteristics affect cooperative students' digital competences:A latent profile study. Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training. Vol. 11, Issue 1 [Details]
The use of information and communication technologies (ICT) profoundly impacts industry and work. It therefore is important for vocational education and training (VET) to emphasize the development of digital competences. However, little is known about how these skills are distributed among students in VET in general, and among students in ‘cooperative study programmes’ (CSP) in particular. A study at the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University (DHBW) in Germany analysed the digital competences of first-year students in a business-focussed CSP. In an initial latent profile analysis, the authors identified four competence profiles: reserved digitized (7,5% of the students), reserved appreciative (10,9%), constructive digitized (23,2%) and reflective digitized (58,4%). Interestingly, in the subsequent analysis none of the co-assessed student characteristics turned out to be distinctive for any of the four profiles (socio-economic background, gender, academic parent, age, school grade). If further studies confirm that demographic traits are less an indicator for the development of digital competences among CSP students, the factors that do influence their development need to be identified in order to effectively promote the acquisition of profession-related digital competences. Considerations of relevant inset points for VET institutions nationally and internationally to develop tailored support of digital competence development of their students are integrated in the conclusions.
(Contributed by Lydia Schulze Heuling <[email protected]>)
Building the technological European Community through education
Carmen Flury, Michael Geiss, Rosalía Guerrero Cantarell. Building the technological European Community through education: European mobility and training programmes in the 1980s. European Educational Research Journal. December 21, 2020 [Details]
The Community Action Programme for Education and Training for Technology (COMETT) played a key role in paving the way for increased cooperation between the member states of the European Community (EC) in the field of education and in the promotion of intra-Europe mobility. In this article, COMETT is considered as a non-traditional education and training programme for solving economic challenges in the context of technological change that was focused on the training of a highly skilled workforce. The process of setting the agenda for COMETT is studied through an analysis of official EC policy documents and archival material from the EU’s historical archives in Florence. Our analysis suggests that the challenge posed by new information technologies acted as a catalyst for a new approach to education governance that was based on closer cooperation between European universities and industry. Promoting intra-Europe mobility among highly skilled workers and students was a key part of the programme, which defined an economic and social strategy for Europe in response to technological change. Educational and social goals were secondary in the design and implementation of the COMETT programme, which, first and foremost, was motivated by the EC agenda to boost the competitiveness of European industry.
(Contributed by Carmen Flury <[email protected]>)
NOTE: References to publications on European research in learning and work are provided by the WIFO pages on Books [www.books.wifo-gate.org], Journals [www.journals.wifo-gate.org] and Articles [www.articles.wifo-gate.org].